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IEEE Citation Style

This guide provides examples of the resources most often cited by students at Camosun College. If you can't find an example of the specific resource that you are using, please try the additional resource links or seek clarification from your instructor.

Complete List of Examples

Reference numbers match the the order of appearance in the text regardless of source type or format. The same number is used in all subsequent quotes or references from that source.

A-V / Media Materials

Material Type

Reference List Entry

DVD [1] I. Holm, Narrator, and J. Fullerton-Smith, Producer, How to Build a Human [DVD]. London: BBC; 2002.
Radio Programme [2] R. Aedy, Interviewer, D. Hector, Interviewee, and S. Clark, Producer, "The future of engineering," The Buzz, 25 Sept., 2004 [Radio broadcast]. Sydney: ABC Radio.
Sound Recording [3] D. Fisher, Writer, and T. Baker, Presenter, Doctor Who and the Creature From the Pit [Sound recording]. Bath, UK: BBC Audiobooks, 2009.
Television Programme [4] T. Jones and P. Williams, Reporters, BP releases report into Gulf of Mexico oil spill. Lateline, 8 Sept., 2010 [Television broadcast]. Sydney: ABC1 Television.
Video Recording [5] C. Rogers, Writer and Director, Grrls in IT [Videorecording]. Bendigo, Vic. : Video Education Australasia, 1999.
YouTube/Vimeo Video [6] NRK. "Medieval helpdesk with English subtitles," YouTube, Feb. 26, 2007 [Video file]. Available: [Accessed: Jan. 28, 2014].

Book Chapters

Chapter or Article in Edited Book [7] A. Rezi and M. Allam, "Techniques in array processing by means of transformations, " in Control and Dynamic Systems, Vol. 69, Multidemsional Systems, C. T. Leondes, Ed. San Diego: Academic Press, 1995, pp. 133-180.
Article in an Encyclopedia

[8] O. B. R. Strimpel, "Computer graphics," in McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 8th ed., Vol. 4. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997, pp. 279-283.


Book: Single Author [9] W.-K. Chen, Linear Networks and Systems. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993, pp. 123-135
Book: Two or More Authors [10] U. J. Gelinas, Jr., S. G. Sutton, and J. Fedorowicz, Business Processes and Information Technology. Cincinnati: South-Western/Thomson Learning, 2004.
Book: Organisation as Author [11] World Bank, Information and Communication Technologies: A World Bank group strategy. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2002.
Book: Government Agency as Author [12] Australia. Attorney-Generals Department., Digital Agenda Review, 4 Vols. Canberra: Attorney- General's Department, 2003.
Book: No Author [13] The Oxford Dictionary of Computing, 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Book: Editor [14] D. Sarunyagate, Ed., Lasers. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.
Book: Different Editions [15] K. Schwalbe, Information Technology Project Management, 3rd ed. Boston: Course Technology, 2004. 
Scientific/Technical Report [16] K. E. Elliott and C.M. Greene, "A local adaptive protocol," Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, France, Tech. Rep. 916-1010-BB, 1997.

Conference Papers

Conference Paper in Print [17] L. Liu and H. Miao, "A specification based approach to testing polymorphic attributes," in Formal Methods and Software Engineering: Proc. of the 6th Int. Conf. on Formal Engineering Methods, ICFEM 2004, Seattle, WA, USA, November 8-12, 2004, J. Davies, W. Schulte, M. Barnett, Eds. Berlin: Springer, 2004. pp. 306-19.
Conference Paper from the Internet [18] J. Lach, "SBFS: Steganography based file system," in Proc. of the 2008 1st Int. Conf. on Information Technology, IT 2008, 19-21 May 2008, Gdansk, Poland [Online]. Available: IEEE Xplore, [Accessed: 10 Sept. 2010].
Unpublished Conference Paper [19] H. A. Nimr, "Defuzzification of the outputs of fuzzy controllers," presented at 5th Int. Conf. on Fuzzy Systems, 1996, Cairo, Egypt. 1996.
Conference Proceedings [20] T. J. van Weert and R. K. Munro, Eds., Informatics and the Digital Society: Social, ethical and cognitive issues: IFIP TC3/WG3.1&3.2 Open Conf.e on Social, Ethical and Cognitive Issues of Informatics and ICT, July 22-26, 2002, Dortmund, Germany. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 2003.



[21] L. Bass, P. Clements, and R. Kazman, Software Architecture in Practice, 2nd ed. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 2003. [Online] Available: Safari e-book.

Chapter from an E-book

[22] D. Kawecki, "Fuel preparation," in Combustion Engineering Issues for Solid Fuel Systems, B.G. Miller and D.A. Tillman, Eds. Boston, MA: Academic Press, 2008, 199-240. [Online] Available: Referex.

Article from an Electronic Encyclopaedia

[23] G. S. Thompson and M. P. Harmer, "Nanoscale ceramic composites," in Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, K. H. J. Buschow, R. W. Cahn, M. C. Flemings, B. Ilschner, E.J. Kramer, S. Mahajan, and P. Veyssière, Eds. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2001, pp. 5927-5930. [Online]. Available: ScienceDirect.

Electronic / Online journals

Journal Article from a Full Text Database

[24] H. Ayasso and A. Mohammad-Djafari, "Joint NDT Image Restoration and Segmentation Using Gauss–Markov–Potts Prior Models and Variational Bayesian Computation," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 2265-77, 2010. [Online]. Available: IEEE Xplore, [Accessed Sept. 10, 2010]. 

Journal Article from the Internet

[25] P. H. C. Eilers and J. J. Goeman, "Enhancing scatterplots with smoothed densities," Bioinformatics, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 623-628, March 2004. [Online]. Available: [Accessed Sept. 18, 2004].

Internet Documents

Electronic Document [26]  European Telecommunications Standards Institute, “Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): Implementation guidelines for DVB terrestrial services; transmission aspects,” European Telecommunications Standards Institute, ETSI TR-101-190, 1997. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Aug. 17, 1998].
Government Publication [27] Australia. Department of of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, Survey on Changes in Awareness and Understanding of Science, Engineering and Technology: Report on findings. Canberra: The Department; 2008. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Sept. 7, 2010].
Whole Internet Site [28] J. Geralds, "Sega Ends Production of Dreamcast,", para. 2, Jan. 31, 2001. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Sept. 12, 2004].

Journal Articles

Journal Article in Print: Abbreviated titles [29] G. Liu, K. Y. Lee, and H. F. Jordan, "TDM and TWDM de Bruijn networks and shufflenets for optical communications," IEEE Trans. Comp., vol. 46, pp. 695-701, June 1997.
Journal Article in Print: Full titles [30] J. R. Beveridge and E. M. Riseman, "How easy is matching 2D line models using local search?" IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 19, pp. 564-579, June 1997.

Newspaper Articles

Newspaper Article in Print [31] N. Perpitch, "Green groups battle to overturn gas plan," The Australian, p. 2, Sept. 7, 2010.
Newspaper Article from the Internet

[32] C. Wilson-Clark, "Computers ranked as key literacy," The West Australian, para. 3, March 29, 2004. [Online]. Available: [Accessed Sept. 18, 2004].

Newspaper Article from a Full Text Database [33] J. Riley, "Call for new look at skilled migrants," The Australian, p. 35, May 31, 2005. [Online]. Available: Factiva, [Accessed May 31, 2005].


Canadian Patent Application

[34] P. Di Benedetto and G. Colacitti. "Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Delivery System," CA 3031287, Jan 18, 2019,, Accessed on Jul 25, 2019. [Online].

Canadian Patent

[35] F. Buevich et al. "Temporarily Stiffened Mesh Protheses," CA 2637578, Mar 31, 2015,, Accessed on Jul 25, 2019. [Online].



[36] R. Robertson, Speaker, Leadership at the Bottom of the Earth…Where No One Hears You Scream, 2010 Sir Walter Murdoch Lecture. Murdoch (WA): Murdoch University; 2010. [Podcast]. Available: [Accessed Aug. 5, 2010].

Podcast Radio Programme

[37] S. Gary, Presenter, “Black Hole Death Ray,” StarStuff, Dec. 23, 2007. Sydney: ABC News Radio. [Podcast radio programme]. Available: [Accessed Feb. 4, 2008]. 

Podcast Television Programme [38] W. Brown and K. Brodie, Presenters, and P. George, Producer, “From Lake Baikal to the Halfway Mark, Yekaterinburg,” Peking to Paris: Episode 3, Jun. 4, 2007.  Sydney: ABC Television. [Podcast television programme]. Available: [Accessed Feb. 4, 2008].

Readers/Study Guides

Reader [39] C. J. Campbell and J. H. Laherrere, "The End of Cheap Oil", Scientific American, vol. 278, no. 3, pp. 78-83, March 1998. Reprinted in Introduction to Energy Studies (PEC190): Selected readings. Murdoch, WA: Murdoch Univ., 2006, pp. 129-134.


Unpublished Thesis [40] M. W. Dixon, "Application of neural networks to solve the routing problem in communication networks," Ph.D. dissertation, Murdoch Univ., Murdoch, WA, Australia, 1999.
Published Thesis [41] M. Lehmann, Data Access in Workflow Management Systems. Berlin: Aka, 2006.
Thesis from a Full Text Database [42] F. Sudweeks, Development and Leadership in Computer-Mediated Collaborative Groups. PhD [Dissertation]. Murdoch, WA: Murdoch Univ., 2007. [Online]. Available: Australasian Digital Theses Program.


This guide has been based, with permission, on the guide created by Murdoch University Library, Western Australia.