Skip to main content

APA Citation Style (6th edition)

Missing information?

What to do when...

  • There is no publication date: use (n.d.). See section 6.28 of the APA Publication Manual
  • There is no author: move the title of the webpage or article to the author position (before the date)
  • There is no page number (see section 6.05 of the APA Publication Manual): when appropriate you can use a paragraph number e.g. para. 3, a timestamp for videos e.g. 15:25, a section heading e.g. Discussion section, Introduction, etc.
  • You can't locate a similar example in the APA Publication Manual, try searching the APA Style blog


The correct form of abbreviation must be used in reference lists:

ed. edition
Rev. ed. Revised edition
2nd ed. second edition
Ed. or Eds. Editor or Editors
Trans. Translators
n.d. no date
p. or pp. page (p. 102) or pages (e.g. pp. 58-59)
Vol. Volume (e.g. Vol. 4)
Vols. Volumes (e.g. 4 Vols.)
No. Number
Pt. Part
Tech. Rep. Technical report
Suppl. Supplement

It is not necessary to include the full name of a province or state in your citation. The two letter abbreviation is sufficient. See a list of the abbreviations

(APA Publication Manual, section 6.22)

Identifying alternate formats

Format description terms from APA (See section 6.29 of the APA Publication Manual)

A format description in square brackets is used only when the format is something out of the ordinary & helps to clarify the resource type for your reader.

[Abstract] [Motion picture]
[Audio podcast] [Special issue]
[Blog comment] [Special section]
[Brochure] [Supplemental material]
[Data file] [Tape recording]
[Electronic mailing list message] [Video file]
[Lecture notes] [Video podcast]
[Letter to the editor]  [Web log post]