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MLA Style (8th Ed.) 2017

Core Elements Format

Remember,  the MLA 8th Edition does not provide rules for citing specific types of resources. They provide a universal set of guidelines for any type of material based on the core elements. The guidelines for citing any type of material or online resource are based on use of the core elements. 

If you are uncertain about how to cite a resource after reviewing this guide, please check with your instructor.

If your source is quoting another source, known as an indirect source, do your best to find the original source. If you cannot find the original see this example

Date accessed is now optional for online resources! Ask your instructor if they want this information included in your citations. Date accessed would follow the URL or Permalink.

Journal, Article from a Library Database without a DOI

FORMAT

Author's Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal, vol. #, no. #, Publication Date, pp. xx-xx. Title of Database, URL. 

EXAMPLE

Williams, George R. "What Can Consciousness Anomalies Tell Us about Quantum Mechanics?" Journal of Scientific Exploration, vol.30, no. 3, 2015, pp. 326-354. Academic Search Complete, libsecure.camosun.bc.ca:2443/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=118525144&site=eds-live

In Text: (Williams 344)

MORE DETAILS

Always use a DOI number if one is available. Otherwise use a URL.  Use a persistent link or stable URL and remove the beginning "http://" or "https://" from the link in your citation.

Journal, Article from a Library Database with a DOI

FORMAT

Author's Last Name, First Name, et al. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, vol. #, no. #, Publication Date, pp. xx-xx. Title of Database, doi:#.

EXAMPLE

Rabb, Nathaniel, et al. "Truths About Beauty and Goodness: Disgust Affects Moral but not Aesthetic Judgments." Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts, vol. 10, no. 4, 2016, pp. 492-500. PsycINFO, doi:10.1037/aca0000051. *Accessed 12 Nov. 2016.

In Text: (Rabb et al. 494)

MORE DETAILS

"If the sources has three or more authors, the entry in the works cited list begins with the first author's name followed by et al.  The in-text citation follows suit." (MLA Handbook, 8th edition, p. 116)

"When possible, cite a DOI (preceded by doi: ) instead of a URL. (MLA Handbook, 8th ed., p. 110)

*Date accessed is now optional for online resources!

Journal, Article from the Internet

FORMAT

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, vol. #, no. #, Publication Date, pp. xx-xx, URL.

EXAMPLE

Cianciolo, Patricia K. "Compensating Nuclear Weapons Workers and Their Survivors: The Case of Fernald." Michigan Family Review, vol. 19, no. 1, 2015, pp. 51-72, quod.lib.umich.edu/m/mfr/ 4919087.0019.103?rgn=main;view=fulltext. Accessed 21 Sept. 2016.

In Text: (Cianciolo 61)

Journal, Article (print)

FORMAT

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, vol. #, no. #, Publication Date, pp. xx-xx.

EXAMPLE

Conatser, Phillip, and Martin Block. "Aquatic Instructors' Beliefs Toward Inclusion." Therapeutic Recreation Journal, vol. 35, no. 2, 2001, pp. 170-184.

In Text: (Conatser and Block 177)

Magazine Article from a Library Database

FORMAT

Author's Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine,  vol. #, no. #, Publication Date, pp. xx-xx. Title of Database, URL.

EXAMPLE

Agren, David. "Here Comes the Rain Again." Maclean's, vol. 124, no. 29, 8 Aug. 2011, p. 43. Canadian Business & Current Affairs Database, https://libsecure.camosun.bc.ca:2443/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/879703108?accountid=26530.

In Text: (Agren 43)

MORE DETAILS

Magazines can be published with a volume and issue, or with only a publication date.  Cite what you have.

For magazine articles use a permalink (as in this example) or stable URL which requires removing the beginning "http://" or "https://" from the link in your citation.

Magazine, Article (Internet)

FORMAT

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine, Publication Date, URL. 

EXAMPLE

Miller, Laura. “The Evolutionary Argument for Dr. Seuss.” Salon, 18 May 2009, www.salon.com/2009/05/18/evocriticism/. 

In Text: (Miller)

Magazine, Article (print)

FORMAT

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine, Publication Date, pp. xx-xx.

EXAMPLE

Bolster, Mary. “Energize Your Life.” Natural Health,  Mar. 2009, p. 10.

In Text: (Bolster 10)

Newspaper, Article from a Library Database

FORMAT

Author's Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper,  Publication Date, p. x. Name of Database, URL. 

EXAMPLE

Zacharias, Yvonne. "Robofuture." The Vancouver Sun, 6 Aug. 2004, p. F1. Canadian Major Dailies, https://libsecure.camosun.bc.ca:2443/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/242295984?accountid=26530.

In Text: (Zacharias F1)

NOTE  articles use a permalink (as in this example) or stable URL which requires removing the beginning "http://" or "https://" from the link in your citation.

Newspaper, Article from the Internet

FORMAT

Author's Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper,  Publication Date, URL.

EXAMPLE

Skerritt, Jen. “Local Liver Specialists Struggle to Keep up with Hep-C Influx.” Winnipeg Free Press, 20 May 2009, www.winnipegfreepress.com /arts-and-life/life/local-liver-specialists-struggle-to-keep-up-with-hep-c- influx-45462112.html. 

In Text: (Skerritt)

Newspaper Article (Print)

FORMAT

Author's Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper,  Publication Date, p. x.

EXAMPLE

Fayerman, Pamela. "Body Degerates as Patients Wait." The Vancouver Sun, 3 June 2005, p. A12.

In Text: (Fayerman A12)

Newspaper, Article - No Author (print)

FORMAT

“Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper, Publication Date, p. x.

EXAMPLE

"Oval Distinguished for Innovative Design.” The Vancouver Sun, 16 May 2009, p. A14.

In Text: ("Oval Distinguished" A14)