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Chicago Style Guide - 17th Edition

Updates to Social Media Citations in Chicago's 17th Edition

New information about citing blogs and social media posts

In response to the increased use of social media, the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style has provided more detailed information about how to cite various forms of social media including information from blog posts, Facebook, and Twitter.

Chicago style maintains that it is acceptable for social media posts to be cited in text or in notes, rather than being listed in a full bibliographical entry. However, when a social media post or comment holds significant importance to your written assignment, or is mentioned frequently, it is best to include it in your bibliography.

Some instructors prefer that all cited resources be included in your bibliography, regardless of the citation's resource type. If in doubt, check with your instructor before you decide to leave information out of your bibliography!

Blog

FORMAT

Blogger's LastName, FirstName. "Title of Blog Post." Title of Blog (blog). Name of Larger Publication if Applicable, Date of post. URL.

EXAMPLE

Posner, Richard. “Inequality in Income and Wealth.” The Becker-Posner Blog. January 30, 2011. http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/2011/01/inequality-in-income-and-wealthposner.html.

FOOTNOTE FORM

30. Richard Posner, “Inequality in Income and Wealth,” The Becker-Posner Blog, January 30, 2011http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/2011/01/inequality-in-income-and-wealthposner.html.


EXAMPLE

Amlen, Deb. "One Who Gives a Hoot." Wordplay (blog). New York Times, January 26, 2015. https://wordplay.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/01/26/one-who-gives-a-hoot/.

FOOTNOTE FORM

12. Deb Amlen, "One Who Gives a Hoot," Wordplay (blog), New York Times, January 26, 2015, https://wordplay.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/01/26/one-who-gives-a-hoot/.


MORE DETAILS

  • Blogs are cited like online newspaper articles.
  • The word "blog" may be added in parenthesis after the title of the blog to indicate its status as a blog. If the word already appears in the title of the blog, there is no need to add (blog) in parenthesis.
  • Blog entries without titles should be referred to by the date posted.
  • Blogs that are part of a larger publication should also include the name of that publication.
  • In some situations blog entries can be cited only as a note or a mention in the text. A frequently cited blog or a post that is important to the content of your argument may be included in the bibliography. Be sure to check with your instructor about their preference!

Facebook

FORMAT

Author's LastName, FirstName (Screen name if different from actual name). "Post Content up to 160 characters/spaces." Facebook, Date and time of post. URL.

EXAMPLE

Díaz, Junot. “Always surprises my students when I tell them that the ‘real’ medieval was more diverse than the fake ones most of us consume.” Facebook, February 24, 2016. http://www.facebook.com/junotdiaz.writer/posts/972495572815454.

FOOTNOTE FORM

17. Junot Díaz, “Always surprises my students when I tell them that the ‘real’ medieval was more diverse than the fake ones most of us consume,” Facebook, Feburary 24, 2016, http://www.facebook.com/junotdiaz.writer/posts/972495572815454.

Twitter

FORMAT

Author's LastName, FirstName (TwitterHandle). "Tweet Content up to 160 characters/spaces." Twitter, Date and time of post. URL.

EXAMPLE

Mercer, Rick (@rickmercer). "Ranting in an Alley. Great Day For It. Anger is My Cardio!" Twitter, October 15, 2010, 1:10 a.m. http://twitter.com/rickmercer/status/27462002333.

FOOTNOTE FORM

35. Rick Mercer (@rickmercer), "Ranting in an Alley. Great Day For It. Anger is My Cardio!," Twitter, October 15, 2010, 1:10 a.m., http://twitter.com/rickmercer/status/27462002333.


EXAMPLE

Albright, Madeleine (@madeleine). "I was profoundly saddened to learn of the passing of former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan. He was a dear friend..." Twitter, August 18, 2018, 8:10 a.m. https://twitter.com/madeleine/status/1030834201258541062.

FOOTNOTE FORM

32. Madeleine Albright (@madeleine), "I was profoundly saddened to learn of the passing of former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan. He was a dear friend...," Twitter, August 18, 2018, 8:10 a.m., https://twitter.com/madeleine/status/1030834201258541062.

MORE DETAILS

  • When citing content from a tweet, quote up to the first 160 characters and spaces of a tweet's content in your citation.
  • As social media content can be updated or deleted, the Chicago Manual of Style advises authors to save a copy of the social media posts and comments they cite.

Social Media Comments

Comments

When discussing a blog, website, or social media content you may want to discuss comments arising from the original post. Comments can be cited one of two ways:

1)  Cited in the main body of your text, in reference to the related post (the original post being commented on).

– or –

2) In your footnotes with the commenter's name (or handle), the date of the comment, and citation information related to the original post included.

MORE DETAILS

  • A URL for the comment itself is optional but may be added if available.
  • A frequently cited account or an extensive thread related to a single subject or post may be included in a bibliography.
  • Comments that are private–such as direct messages or posts limited to friends only–should be cited as personal communications (see example on "Interviews" tab).

IN TEXT EXAMPLE

Barbara Mislan responded positively to the content of comedian Natasha Rothwell's tweet by writing, "I just think you're great." (@Babs_says_that, August 18, 2019). 

FOOTNOTE FORM (TWITTER COMMENT)

14. Barbara Mislan (@Babs_says_that), August 18, 2019, 4:49 a.m., comment on Natasha Rothwell (@natasharothwell), "I like my late-night TV like I like my legislation: made by women," Twitter, August 17, 2018, 7:07 p.m., https://twitter.com/Babs_says_that/status/1030783633337069568.

15. Natasha Rothwell (@natasharothwell), "I like my late-night TV like I like my legislation: made by women," Twitter, August 17, 2018, 7:07 p.m., https://twitter.com/natasharothwell/status/1030637400639266817.


FOOTNOTE FORM (BLOG COMMENT)

21. Susan Woodring, September 17, 2010, 3:40 a.m., comment on J. Robert Lennon, “How Do You Revise?,” Ward Six (blog), September 16, 2010, 8:39 a.m., http://wardsix.blogspot.com/2010/09/how-do-you-revise.html.