Skip to main content

Chicago Style Guide - 17th Edition

Introduction to the Author/Date Style

Chicago Manual of Style Author/Date Style

The author/date system is widely used by social science and science-related disciplines. Sources are cited using in-text citations and a reference list of bibliographic information at the end of the paper.

Please note, this page presents information about the Chicago author/date system.
The remainder of this guide provides information about the notes and bibliography (humanities) style.

 Be sure to check with your instructor to confirm which citation style they want you to use.

Author/Date Style Examples

Getting started with the Chicago Manual of Style Author/Date System

In the author/date style, sources are referenced within the paper's text using parenthetical citations. A reference list at the end of the paper provides full bibliographic information for each cited source.

Click on the tabs to find examples of how to cite various resource types using the Chicago author/date system. For each resource type you will be provided with a formatting formula showing each element of the citation, a bibliographical example, and an in text example

Visit Purdue OWL to view a sample paper using the Chicago author/date system.

Book - Single Author

FORMAT

Author's LastName, FirstName. Year. Title of Book. PlacePublished: Publisher.

EXAMPLE

Oakley, Ann. 2003. Gender on Planet Earth. New York: New Press.

IN TEXT FORM

(Oakley 2003, 77)


Book – Two or Three Authors

FORMAT

FirstAuthor's LastName, FirstName and/or Initial., and SecondAuthor's FirstName and/or Initial LastName. Year. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Edition number (if applicable). PlacePublished: Publisher.

EXAMPLE

Boxer, Marilyn J., and Jean H. Quataert. 2000. Connecting Spheres: European Women in a Globalizing World, 1500 to the Present. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.

IN TEXT FORM

(Boxer and Quataert 2000, 69)


Book - Four or More Authors

FORMAT

FirstAuthor's LastName, FirstName, SecondAuthor's FirstName LastName, ThirdAuthor's FirstName LastName, and ForthAuthor's FirstName LastName. Year. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. PlacePublished: Publisher.

EXAMPLE

Clayden, Marie, Dianne Fenner, Christine McAdam, and Christine Strauss. 2003. Making It Work: A Handbook for Reading, Writing, Language and Media. Toronto: Irwin Publishing.

IN TEXT FORM

(Clayden et al. 2003, 209)

NOTE: For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the reference list; in the text, list only the first author, followed by et al.


Book – Corporate Author

FORMAT

CorporationName. Year. Title of Book. PlacePublished: Publisher.

EXAMPLE

American Medical Association. 1998. Essential Guide to Asthma. New York: Pocket Books.

IN TEXT FORM

(American Medical Association 1998, 141)


Book – No Author or Editor

FORMAT

Title of Book. Year. PlacePublished: Publisher.

EXAMPLE

American Heritage Dictionary for Learners of English. 2002. Boston: Houghton.

IN TEXT FORM

(American Heritage Dictionary for Learners of English 2002, 309)


Book – Editor as Author

FORMAT

Editor's LastName, FirstName and/or Initial., ed. Year. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. PlacePublished: Publisher.

EXAMPLE

Hughes, Kenneth J., ed. 1990. Contemporary Manitoba Writers: New Critical Studies. Winnipeg: Turnstone Press.

IN TEXT FORM

(Hughes 1990, 77)

Chapter or Other Part of a Book

FORMAT

ChapterAuthor's LastName, FirstName. Year. "Chapter Title." In Title of Book: Subtitle of Book, edited by FirstEditor's FirstName LastName and SecondEditor's FirstName LastName, xx-xx. PlacePublished: Publisher.

EXAMPLE

Crozier, Lorna. 2001. “What Stays in the Family.” In Dropped Threads: What We Aren’t Told, edited by Carol Shields and Marjorie Anderson, 11-18. Toronto: Vintage Canada.

IN TEXT FORM

(Crozier 2001, 14)

Electronic Book

FORMAT

Author's LastName, FirstName. Year. Title of eBook: Subtitle of eBook. PlacePublished: Publisher. Collection name e-book.

EXAMPLE

Russell, Martin. 2001. Beethoven’s Hair: An Extraordinary Historical Odyssey and a Scientific Mystery Solved. New York: Broadway Books. ebrary collections e-book.

IN TEXT FORM

(Martin 2001, 46)

NOTE: When citing an e-book that does not have fixed page numbers, use a chapter, section, or paragraph number, or another reference marker.

Journal – Print

FORMAT

Author's LastName, FirstName. Year. "Title of Article: Subtitle of Article." Title of Journal. volume (issue): xx-xx.

EXAMPLE

Berger, Benjamin. 2002. “The Limits of Belief: Freedom of Religion, Secularism, and the Liberal State.” Canadian Journal of Law and Society 17(1): 39-68.

IN TEXT FORM

(Berger 2002, 47)


Journal Article from a Library Database or the Internet with a DOI

FORMAT

Author's LastNameFirstName. Year. "Title of Article: Subtitle of Article." Title of Journal. volume (issue): xx-xx. doi:10.xxxxxxxxx.

EXAMPLE

Tolmacz, Rami. 2008. “Concern and Empathy: Two Concepts or One.” American Journal of Psychoanalysis 68(3): 257-275. doi: 10.1057/ajp.2008.22.

IN TEXT FORM

(Tolmacz 2008, 260)


Journal Article from a Library Database without a DOI

FORMAT

Author's LastNameFirstName Initial. Year. "Title of Article: Subtitle of Article." Title of Journal. volume (issue): xx-xx. Library Database Name.

EXAMPLE

‚ÄčSandage, Steven J. 2010. “Comparison of Two Group Interventions to Promote Forgiveness: Empathy as a Mediator of Change.” Journal of Mental Health Counseling 32(1): 35-57. Academic Search Complete.

IN TEXT FORM

(Sandage 2010, 43)


Journal Article from the Internet without a DOI

FORMAT

Author's LastNameFirstName Initial. Year. "Title of Article: Subtitle of Article." Title of Journal. volume (issue). URL.

EXAMPLE

Bean, Heidi R. 2009. “Carla Harryman’s Non/Representation and the Ethics of Dispersive.” Postmodern Culture 20(1). http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/postmodern_culture/v020/20.1.bean.html.

IN TEXT FORM

(Bean 2009)

Webpages

FORMAT

Author's Last Name, First Name or CorporationName. Year. “Title of Web Article.” Published, Modified or Accessed Month Day, Year. URL.

EXAMPLE

Google. 2009. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified March 11, 2009. http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.

IN TEXT FORM

(Google 2009)

MORE DETAILS

  • For sources that include a date of publication or revision, include the year of the publication in the reference list entry following the author/corporation name. Repeat the year with the month and the day of publish/revision to avoid confusion.
  • Chicago requires an access date be provided in a citation only when a publication or revision date cannot be found.
  • The information given on webpages can vary. See below for additional examples of how to configure your citation when different reference information is available.

Webpage with Corporation as Author

FORMAT

CorporationName. Year. “Title of Web Article.” Published, Modified or Accessed Month Day, Year. URL.

EXAMPLE

McDonald’s Corporation. 2008. “McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts.” Accessed July 19, 2008. http://www.mcdonalds.com/corp/about/factsheets.html.

IN TEXT FORM

(McDonald’s 2008)


Webpage with Person as Author

FORMAT

Author's Last Name, First Name. Year. “Title of Web Article.” Owner/Sponsor of Site. Published, Modified or Accessed Month Day, Year, URL.

EXAMPLE

Watson, Ivan. 2011. “Tunisians Vote in First Election Following Arab Spring.” CNN.com. Last modified October 23, 2011. http://us.cnn.com/2011/10/23/world/africa/tunisia-elections/index.html.

IN TEXT FORM

(Watson 2011)


Webpage with No Publish or Revision Date

FORMAT

Author's Last Name, First Name or CorporationName. n.d. “Title of Web Article.” Accessed Month Day, Year. URL.

EXAMPLE

The Katharine Maltwood Society. n.d. “Home Page.” Accessed September 4, 2018. http://www.thekatharinemaltwoodsociety.com/.

IN TEXT FORM

(Katharine Maltwood Society, n.d.)

Blog

FORMAT

Blogger's LastName, FirstName. Year. "Title of Blog Post" Title of Blog (blog). Name of Larger Publication if Applicable. Date of post. URL. 

EXAMPLE

Posner, Richard. 2011. “Inequality in Income and Wealth.” The Becker-Posner Blog, January 30, 2011. http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/2011/01/inequality-in-income-and-wealthposner.html.

IN TEXT FORM

(Posner 2009)

MORE DETAILS

  • Blogs are cited like online newspaper articles.

  • For sources that include a date of publication or revision, include the year of the publication in the reference list entry following the author/corporation name. Repeat the year with the month and the day of publish/revision to avoid confusion.
  • In some situations blog entries can be cited only as a note or a mention in the text. A frequently cited blog or a post that is important to the content of your argument may be included in the bibliography. Be sure to check with your instructor about their preference!

EXAMPLE

Amlen, Deb. 2015. "One Who Gives a Hoot." Wordplay (blog), New York Times, January 26, 2015. https://wordplay.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/01/26/one-who-gives-a-hoot/.

IN TEXT FORM

(Amlen 2015)

MORE DETAILS 

  • The word "blog" may be added in parenthesis after the title of the blog to indicate its status as a blog. If the word already appears in the title of the blog, there is no need to add (blog) in parenthesis. 
  • Blogs that are part of a larger publication should also include the name of that publication.

Government Publications - Online

FORMAT

ProvinceName. Name of Authoring Government Department, Agency or Committee. Year. Title of Document.  PlacePublished: Publishing Department, Agency or Committee. URL.

EXAMPLE

British Columbia. Ministry of Education. 2011. Special Education Services: A Manual of Policies, Procedures and Guidelines. Victoria, BC: Ministry of Education. http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/specialed/ppandg.htm.

IN TEXT FORM

(British Columbia. Ministry of Education 2011)

NOTE: The information given on webpages can vary. See below for additional examples of how to configure your citation when different reference information is available.


Government Publications - Print

FORMAT

CountryName. Name of Authoring Government Department, Agency or Committee. Year. Title of Document. PlacePublished: Publishing Department, Agency or Committee. 

EXAMPLE

Canada. Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women 1991. Brief to the Royal Commission on New Reproductive Technologies. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women.

IN TEXT FORM

(Canada. Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women 1991)

Motion Picture

FORMAT

Director's LastName, FirstName, dir. Year Media you watched was PublishedTitle of WorkPlacePublished: Publisher. Format.

EXAMPLE

Hancock, John Lee, dir. 2010. The Blind Side. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video. DVD.

IN TEXT FORM

(Hancock 2010)

MORE DETAILS

The Chicago Manual of Style does not provide many citation examples for media in the author-date style. The examples used in the guide modify the format used in Chicago's notes/bibliography style. 

Sound Recording

FORMAT

LastName, FirstName of composer, performer, or group. Year of original recording if applicableTitle of Recording. Contributing personnel if applicable. Track number on AlbumTitle if applicable. Year of Release if applicable, Recording Company and Publisher Acquisition number of LP or CD if available, Format.

EXAMPLE

Horowitz, Vladimir. 1989. The Last Recording. Sony Classical SK 45818, 1990, compact disc.

IN TEXT FORM

(Horowitz 1989)


EXAMPLE

Pink Floyd. 1970. Atom Heart Mother. Capital CDP7 46381 2, 1990, compact disc.

IN TEXT FORM

(Pink Floyd 1970)


EXAMPLE

Rihanna [Robin Fentyl], vocalist. 2007. "Umbrella." Featuring Jay-Z. Track 1 on Rihanna, Good Girl Gone Bad. Island Def Jam. MP3 audio.

IN TEXT FORM

(Rihanna 2007)

MORE DETAILS

Citations of video, film, and sound recordings vary according to the nature of the material being referenced and depending on what element is most important for your paper. Any element relevant to identifying a resource should be included. Depending on the resource type, you may cite both the release date for the resource, as well as the original date of creation. For online media, include a URL at the end of the citation. When constructing citations for various media types, do so in as consistent a manner as possible throughout your research paper.

Course Pack

The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. does not provide instructions on how to cite course packs. The following is one possible format to follow:

  • Treat the items in your course pack like articles or chapters in an edited book that are reprinted from another source
  • Use the name of the instructor as the editor
  • If the instructor’s name is not given, use the department as the editor
  • Use the bookstore as the publisher and the date the course pack was issued as the date of publication
  • If there is no date of issue, use the current semester and year for the date of publication.

FORMAT

Author's LastName, FirstName. Year. "Title of Article." In Course Pack Title: Course Pack Subtitle, edited by Editor's FirstName LastName, xx-xx. PlacePublished: Publisher.

EXAMPLE

Klein, Joseph. 2011. “Recommendations for Care.” In NURS 2190: Nursing Philosophical Issues Course Packedited by Sarah Kaye, 11-24. Coquitlam: Douglas College Bookstore.

IN TEXT FORM

(Klein 2011)