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Chicago Style Guide - 17th Edition

Published Interviews

Published interviews are cited in both footnotes/endnotes and bibliographies. When citing published interviews, include the following information:

  • Name of person interviewed
  • Title of interview (if titled)
  • Name of interviewer
  • If a journal: Title of journal, volume, issue number, date of publication 
  • If a broadcastTitle of program and date of broadcast
  • Page number of quotation (if in print)
  • DOI or URL (if online)
  • Format (if audiovisual)

As with other less common citation types in the Chicago style, adapt the structure of the formatting formula for the resource type your interview is found in (e.g., article, podcast, television broadcast).

FORMAT

Interviewee's LastName, FirstName. "Title of Interview." By Interviewer's FirstName LastName. Journal Tile, volume, no. issue (Year): xx-xx.

EXAMPLE

Bellour, Raymond. “Alternation, Segmentation, Hypnosis: Interview with Raymond Bellour.” By Janet Bergstrom. Camera Obscura, nos. 3–4 (Summer 1979): 89–94.

FOOTNOTE FORM

116. Raymond Bellour, “Alternation, Segmentation, Hypnosis: Interview with Raymond Bellour,” by Janet Bergstrom, Camera Obscura, 3–4 (Summer 1979): 90.


EXAMPLE

Bundy, McGeorge. Interview. By Robert MacNeil. MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour, PBS. February 7, 1990.

FOOTNOTE FORM

 117. McGeorge Bundy, interview by Robert MacNeilMacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour, PBS, February 7, 1990.


EXAMPLE

Diaz, Junot. “Mil Máscaras: An Interview with Pulitzer-Winner Junot Díaz (The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao).” By Matt Okie. Identitytheory.com. September 2, 2008. http://www.identitytheory.com /interviews/okie_diaz.php. 

FOOTNOTE FORM

18. “Mil Máscaras: An Interview with Pulitzer-Winner Junot Díaz (The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao),” by Matt Okie, Identitytheory.com, September 2, 2008, http://www.identitytheory.com/interviews/okie_diaz.php.


EXAMPLE

Steinke, Darcey. Interview by Sam Tanenhaus and Dwight Garner. New York Times Book Review. Podcast audio. April 22, 2007. http://podcasts.nytimes.com/podcasts/2007/04/20/21bookupdate.mp3.

FOOTNOTE FORM

119. Darcey Steinke, interview by Sam Tanenhaus and Dwight Garner, New York Times Book Review, podcast audio, April 22, 2007, http://podcasts.nytimes.com/podcasts/2007/04/20/21bookupdate.mp3. 

Unpublished Interviews

Unpublished interviews can be cited within the text or in a footnote. They are rarely included in the bibliography (however, be sure to check with your instructor first). The following is important information to include when citing unpublished interviews:

  • Name of person interviewed
  • Identifying information, if relevant
  • Name of interviewer
  • Place of interview (if known)
  • Date of interview (month, day, year, if known)
  • The word transcript or recording (if applicable)
  • Location of transcript or format of recording (if applicable)

FORMAT (FOOTNOTE)

Interviewee's FirstName LastName (identifying information if applicable), brief description of interview type to Interviewer FirstName LastName (or author), InterviewPlace, InterviewDate.

FOOTNOTE FORM

24. Anastasia Morales, e-mail message to author, July 31, 2010.


FOOTNOTE FORM

7. Andrew Macmillan (principal adviser, Investment Center Division, FAO), in discussion with the author, Seattle, Washington, September 1998.


FOOTNOTE FORM

12. Benjamin Spock, interview by Milton J. E. Senn, November 20, 1974, interview 67A, transcript, Senn Oral History Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

Unattributed Interviews

When citing unattributed interviews include:

  • appropriate description of person interviewed
  • date of interview

FORMAT (FOOTNOTE)

Interview with Identifying information about Interviewee, InterviewDate.

FOOTNOTE FORM

10. Interview with health care worker, March 23, 2010.

Privately Shared Social Media Content

References to conversations shared in privately shared social media correspondence such as direct messages or posts shared within a limited circle, are usually included in the text of an essay, or provided in a footnote.

IN TEXT EXAMPLE

Though inconclusive, a photograph shared by Seamus Harrington with the author, demonstrated that the group may have been present at the rally. 

FOOTNOTE FORM

7. Facebook direct message to author, September 29, 2018.

MORE DETAILS

The social media address (or similar) belonging to the individual making the private comment should be omitted unless permission from its owner is granted.