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Chicago Style Guide - 17th Edition

Including an Image in your Research Paper

Citing Images in Notes and Bibliography

In the Chicago Manual of Style, little guidance is provided for citing images. According to the 17th edition, information about paintings, sculptures, photographs, and other works of art, can usually be presented in the text, rather than as notes of bibliography entries. However, the Chicago Manual is primarily designed to help professional authors and publishers format their publications, rather than to guide students with research papers and assignments. As a result, Camosun library recommends that best practice for student assignments is for all images referred to in your essay, assignment, or presentation, be included in both your bibliography and referenced in footnotes/endnotes.

When creating bibliographic and note citations for images, include the following information:​

  • artist's/creator's name
  • title or description of painting, photograph, or artwork (in italics)
  • date of creation or completion
  • medium and dimensions (if available) listed in order of height, width, and depth
  • location of the artwork (if available): this includes the institution, museum, library, or private collection that houses the painting, photograph, or work of art, as well as the city the work is located in
  • for works consulted online, include a URL

Image Citation Examples

Depending on the resource type you are citing an artwork or image from, your references for images may contain different information. In order to to build your citation, use the information listed for citing artworks above (creator's name, title, date, medium, dimensions, location) as the root of your citation. Next, combine that root with the established citation format for the resource type you have selected the image from to complete your reference. 

See the examples below for recommended formats for citing images from various sources.

Artwork you Visited in Person

FORMAT

Artist's LastName, FirstName. Title of Artwork. Date created/completed. Medium, dimensions in cm if available. Collection/Institution work is located in, City.

EXAMPLE

Neel, David. Kakasolas (Ellen Neel). 1992. Carved cedar with abalone, 35.5 x 24.5 x 15.2 cm. Camosun College Art Collection, Victoria.

FOOTNOTE FORM

 8. David Neel, Kakasolas (Ellen Neel), 1992, carved cedar with abalone, 35.5 x 24.5 x 15.2 cm, Camosun College Art Collection, Victoria.​

Image or Artwork from a Book

FORMAT

Artist's LastName, FirstName. Title of Artwork. Date created/completed. Medium, dimensions in cm if available. In Title of Book, (edited) by Author's/Editor's FirstName LastName. PlacePublished: Publisher, Year. 

EXAMPLE

Delaroche, Paul. Portrait of a Woman. 1829. Pastel drawing, 25.5 x 30.5 cm. In European Drawings from the Collection of the Ackland Art Museum, by Carol C. Gillham and Carolyn H. Wood. Chapel Hill: The Museum, University of North Carolina, 2001.

FOOTNOTE FORM

1. Paul Delaroche, Portrait of a Woman, 1829, pastel drawing, 25.5 x 30.5 cm, in European Drawings from the Collection of the Ackland Art Museum, by Carol C. Gillham and Carolyn H. Wood. Chapel Hill: The Museum, University of North Carolina, 2001, 93.

MORE DETAILS

When citing an image from an edited book (rather than a book with authors), include the words "edited by" instead of simply using the word "by" in your citation. 

Image or Artwork from an Article

FORMAT

Artist's LastName, FirstName. Title of Artwork. Date created/completed. Medium, dimensions if available. Title of Journal/Magazine Work is Published in, page, volume, issue number and/or date of publication.

EXAMPLE

McCurry, Steve. Afghan Girl. December 1984. Photograph. National Geographic, cover, June 1985.

FOOTNOTE FORM

1. Steve McCurry, Afghan Girl, December 1984, photograph, National Geographic, cover, June 1985.


EXAMPLE

Reimer, Jaime. Liam Bunn-Bird Can't Walk, But He Doesn't Let Him Stop Him fom Getting Out There as a Traditional Powwow Dancer. August 2018. Photograph. In "'He's Not Like Everybody Else:' 8-year-old Powwow Dancer with Spina Bifida Inspires." By Lenard Monkman. CBC.ca. Last modified August 29, 2018. https://www.cbc.ca/news/indigenous/liam-bunn-bird-powwow-dancer-spina-bifida-1.4802484.

FOOTNOTE FORM

2. Jaime Reimer, Liam Bunn-Bird Can't Walk, But He Doesn't Let Him Stop Him fom Getting Out There as a Traditional Powwow Dancer, August 2018, photograph, in "'He's Not Like Everybody Else:' 8-year-old Powwow Dancer with Spina Bifida Inspires.," by Lenard Monkman. CBC.ca, last modified August 29, 2018, https://www.cbc.ca/news/indigenous/liam-bunn-bird-powwow-dancer-spina-bifida-1.4802484.

Image or Artwork from the Internet

FORMAT

Artist's LastName, FirstName. Title of Artwork. Date created/completed. Medium, dimensions if available. Collection/Institution work is located in, City. URL.

EXAMPLE

Lichtenstein, Roy. Drowning Girl. 1963. Oil and synthetic on canvas, 171.6 x 169.5 cm. Museum of Modern Art, New York. https://www.moma.org/collection/works/80249. 

FOOTNOTE FORM

 6. Roy Lichtenstein, Drowning Girl, 1963, oil and synthetic on canvas, 171.6 x 169.5 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York, https://www.moma.org/collection/works/80249.


EXAMPLE

Ball, Gregory. Thin Layer of Skin. 1990. Intaglio print on paper, 73 x 56 cm. Camosun College Art Collection, Victoria. https://cc.arcabc.ca/islandora/object/cc%3A143.

FOOTNOTE FORM

 7. Gregory Ball, Thin Layer of Skin, 1990, intaglio print on paper, 73 x 56 cm, Camosun College Art Collection, Victoria, https://www.moma.org/collection/works/80249.

Artwork from a Library Database

FORMAT

Artist's LastName, FirstName. Title of Artwork. Date created/completed. Medium, dimensions in cm if available. Collection/Institution work is located in, City. LibraryDatabaseName.

EXAMPLE

Stieglitz, Alfred. Katherine. 1905. Photogravure print, 20.9 x 16.8 cm. George Eastman House, Rochester. ARTstor.

FOOTNOTE FORM

14. Alfred Stieglitz, Katherine, 1905, photogravure print, 20.9 x 16.8 cm, George Eastman House, Rochester, ARTstor.


EXAMPLE

Kruger, Barbara. Untitled (Not Stupid Enough): top, Untitled (Not Cruel Enough): bottom. 1997. Photographic silkscreen on vinyl, 277 x 482.5 cm. ARTstor Slide Gallery. ARTstor.

FOOTNOTE FORM

15. Barbara Kruger, Untitled (Not Stupid Enough): top, Untitled (Not Cruel Enough): bottom, 1997, photographic silkscreen on vinyl, 277 x 482.5 cm, ARTstor Slide Gallery, ARTstor.

MORE DETAILS

Images from library databases can be included in your assignments under the terms of the Fair Dealing provision in the Canadian Copyright Act. When citing an image found in a library database, be sure to include:

  • artist's/creator's name
  • title or description of painting, photograph, or artwork (in italics)
  • date of creation
  • medium and dimensions (if available)
  • institution, museum, library, or private collection that houses the painting, photograph, or work of art (if available)
  • name of library database (in italics)

In Text Figures

Numbering In Text Figures

When reproducing an image of an artwork, the image should appear as soon as possible after the paragraph where it is first mentioned. Each image included should be labeled as a "Figure" and numbered consecutively starting with the number one. When referring to the image in your text, refer to its figure number, rather than directional words or by its location on the page (for example, write, "See Figure 3" rather than "See below").

A source line should accompany the numbered figure directly below the image. Treat the source line the same as any other footnote/endnote, and include its full information in your bibliography.

EXAMPLE FIGURE CAPTION

Fig. 1. Steve McCurryAfghan Girl, December 1984, photograph, National Geographic, cover, June 1985.

More Information about Including Images in Your Work

Permissions to Reproduce an Image

In some cases you will have permission to reproduce an image for educational purposes through the terms of the Fair Dealing provision in the Canadian Copyright Act (for example, library print sources and databases). Other times reproduction is contingent on terms set by the copyright owner of the image (for example, images found on Creative Commons). 

In other cases you must:

  • obtain permission from the copyright owner to reproduce an image
  • attribute the work in the manner specified by the copyright owner

In all cases you must:

  • cite the source

When you credit the use of an artwork, do so immediately after the figure citation (close to the image). If the image has been licensed under Creative Commons (or a similar public copyright license), use the appropriate attribution designated for the artwork by its creator or rightsholder.


Additional Information

For more information about citing and reproducing images, check out the following resources: