The Chicago style provides its users with guidelines to follow to cite a variety of resource materials. However, knowing the citation parts that most works share in common will help make creating your citations easier.
The citation examples for the resource types featured in this guide provide a formatting formula showing each element of the bibliographic citation, along with a bibliographical example, and footnote/endnote example to demonstrate how Chicago's formatting rules are put into practice.
Shortened (Subsequent) Citations instead of Ibid.
Ibid. is an abbreviation of the Latin word ibidem, which means "in the same place" and was previously used in Chicago style reference lists to save space. In its 17th edition, the Chicago Manual of Style discourages the use of ibid. and now now favors the use of shortened citations. Like ibid., shortened citations generally take up less than a line's worth of space. In contrast however, shortened citations provide readers with contextual details about the repeated citation. These details provide clarity and help avoid confusion between resources cited.
1. Terrence Deacon, Incomplete Nature: How Mind Emerged from Matter (New York: W. W. Norton, 2012), 68.
2. Deacon, Incomplete Nature, 76.
3. Deacon, 83.
4. Deacon, 83.
5. Deacon, 42-44.
6. Zdenek Salzmann, Language, Culture, and Society: An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology (Boulder: Westview Press, 1998), 124.
7. Deacon, Incomplete Nature, 48.
8. Salzmann, Language, Culture, and Society, 127.