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APA Citation Style (6th edition): Examples

This guide provides an overview of the APA format for citations and references list. Links to more detailed guides are included.

A word of caution!

The following examples are from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed. or derived from resources in the Camosun College Library. Please see the manual for further instructions and examples.

Sometimes there are no specific examples available in the APA Publication Manual for the resource you are using (e.g. course packs), so we have provided our best interpretation of the rules. If you are uncertain about how to cite a resource after reviewing this guide, please check with your instructor.


From the APA style blog: The question to ask before deciding what to include regarding URLs is to consider: "Which will be most helpful to the reader in locating the document?" It is permissible to use database information. Taking this into consideration, some instructors will ask that you include a persistent or permalink rather than a DOI or the publisher's homepage

No author? enter the title of the document in the author position; Corporate and Government departments may also be the author.

IMPORTANT! This first example uses a permalink instead of a DOI. Please check with your instructor to see which they prefer!

An article citation with a permalink looks like this:

da Silva, G. D., Lorenzi-Filho, G., & Lage, L. V. (2007). Effects of yoga and the addition of tui na in patients with fibromyalgia. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 13(10), 1107-1114. Retrieved from

The examples below adhere to the rules as prescribed by APA and use the DOI or journal homepage.

Source References In-text/Parenthetical citation

Journal article with DOI, 2 authors

(Sec. 7.01 APA Publication Manual)

Mitchell, K., & Johnson, M. (2009). Source monitoring 15 years later: What have we learned from MRI about the neural mechanisms of source memory? Psychological Bulletin, 135, 638-677.

If the publication is paginated continuously through each volume, then provide the volume only, not the issue number.
Include both the volume and issue numbers if each issue of the volume begins on page 1. Italicize the volume number and put the issue number, not italicized, in parentheses.
(Mitchell & Johnson, 2009, pp. 645-646)
Journal article without DOI, 3-5 authors (Sec. 7.01 APA Publication Manual)

Mesina, L., Hoble, L., Cocaina, A., Szasz, T., & Avram, C. (2010). Nutritional assessment and its role in evaluation and prescription of exercise training. Timisoara Physical Education & Rehabilitation Journal, 2(4), 55-60. Retrieved from

When there is a DOI, then include it. Otherwise, use the journal or publisher homepage.

First Parenthetical Citation:
(Mesina, Hoble, Cocaina, Szasz, & Avram, 2010, pp. 58-59)

Subsequent Citations:
(Mesina et al., 2010, pp. 58-59)

Journal article with DOI,  6 or more  authors

Ward, R., Kellendonk, C., Simpson, E., Lipatova, O., Drew, M., Fairhurst, S., ... Balsam, P.D. (2009). Impaired timing precision produced by striatal D2 receptor overexpression is mediated by cognitive and motivational deficits. Behavioral Neuroscience, 123, 720-730.

For 6 or 7 authors, list them all. For 8 or more authors, list the first 6 authors and the last author, then use an ellipsis before the name of the last author to replace the 7th author (and 8th, and so on, if applicable.) (Sec. 7.01 APA Publication Manual)

(Ward et al., 2009, p. 723)
Article from an archival database such as JSTOR (Sec. 6.32 APA  Publication Manual)

Kohn, M.L., & Clausen, J.A. (1955). Social isolation and schizophrenia. American Sociological Review, 20, 265-273. Retrieved from

Generally, it is not necessary to include the information about which database your article is from. An exception is made for archival databases such as JSTOR. The retrieval date is not necessary either, unless you think the content may change over time.
(Kohn & Clausen, 1955, p. 268)

Magazine article - print or electronic

(Sec. 7.01 APA Publication Manual)

Bower, B. (2004, November 6). Summer births linked to schizophrenia. Science News, 166(19), 31.

Bower, B. (2004, November 6). Summer births linked to schizophrenia. Science News, 166(19), 31. Retrieved from

(Bower, 2004, p. 31)
Newspaper article - print or electronic (Sec. 7.01 APA Publication Manual)

Bruckner, L. (2011, April 7). Boost your brain with nutritious diet, exercise: Want to keep your wits about you? Be smart now. Times Colonist, p. D8.

Bruckner, L. (2011, April 7). Boost your brain with nutritious diet, exercise: Want to keep your wits about you? Be smart now. Times Colonist. Retrieved from

Health-care politics goes viral. (2014, October 29). Globe and Mail, p. A10.

(Bruckner, 2011, p. D8)



(Bruckner, 2011)


("Health-care,” 2014, p. A10)

Blog post (Sec. 7.11 APA Publication Manual)

Sarna, N. (2011, October 12). Pro-life students arrested at Carleton [Web log post]. Retrieved from

(Sarna, 2011)
Source References In-text/Parenthetical citation

Book (one author) (Sec. 6.11 APA Publication Manual)


Book - Canadian ed. (Sec. 7.02 APA Publication Manual)

Place names outside of the U.S. include a country designation rather than a state abbreviation (Sec. 6.30 APA Publication Manual)

Seebohar, B. (2011). Nutrition periodization for athletes: Taking traditional sports nutrition to the next level (2nd ed.). Boulder, CO: Bull.

Guffey, M.E. (2013). Business communication: Process & product. (4th brief Canadian ed.). Toronto, Canada: Nelson.

(Seebohar, 2011, p. 5)

Page numbers must be included for direct quotations. Page numbers are encouraged, but not necessary, for paraphrased material (see Rule 6.04 APA Publication Manual)


(Guffey, 2013, p. 15)

Book (two authors) (Sec. 6.12 APA Publication Manual)

McKenna, H.P., & Oliver, D.S. (2008). Nursing models, theories and practice. Oxford, England: Blackwell.

Direct quotation:

(McKenna & Oliver, 2008, p. 35)


(McKenna & Oliver, 2008)

Book (three, four or five authors) Sec. 6.12 APA Publication Manual

(For six or more authors see Table 6.1 of the APA Publication Manual)

Yates, R.A., Bereznicki-Korol, T., & Clarke, T. (2011). Business law in Canada. Toronto, Canada: Pearson.

First citation:

(Yates, Bereznicki-Korol, & Clarke, 2011, p. 372)

Subsequent citations:

(Yates et al., 2011, p. 411)

Book (Corporate/organization author)

Harvard Business School. (2010). Doing business ethically. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press.

According to the Harvard Business School (2010)...


......(Harvard Business School, 2010, p. 95).

Book (editor) (Sec. 6.11 and sec. 6.27 APA Publication Manual)

Kuah-Pearce, K.-E. (Ed.). (2008). Chinese women and the cyberspace. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press.

(Kuah-Pearce, 2008, p. 50)

If you have referred to both the author and date in the text of your paper, you do not need to repeat them in your parenthetical citation; use the page number only

(p. 50)

Book - chapter (Sec. 7.02 APA Publication Manual)

Burger, J. & Goddard, N. C. (2010). Communication. In P. A. Potter, A. G. Perry, J. C. Ross-Kerr, & M. J. Wood (Eds.), Canadian fundamentals of nursing (Rev. 4th ed., pp. 243-311). Toronto, Canada: Mosby Elsevier.

(Burger & Goddard, 2010, p. 252)
E-book  (Sec. 7.02 APA Publication Manual)

Valfre, M.M. (2009). Foundations of mental health care. Retrieved from

(Valfre, 2009, p. 5)
Source References In-text/Parenthetical citation
Class notes (See sec. 6.20 APA Publication Manual) Cite information from your own personal notes from a lecture as a personal communication and refer to it only in the body of your essay. Do not add to your Reference list.

In a lecture on November 23, 2014, to a BUS 130 class, Instructor Smith said...

Personal communication (Sec. 6.20 APA Publication Manual) Personal communications can be emails, phone interviews, etc. As most personal communication is not recoverable, you cite in text only. Do not add to your Reference list. In an interview, J. S. Smith (personal communication, July 25, 2015) mentioned…
Class handout: Has title (Sec 7.09 #58 APA Publication Manual)

Smith-Jones, A. (2011) Business Models [Class handout]. School of Business, Camosun College, Victoria, BC.

(Smith-Jones, 2011)
Lecture notes posted to D2L (Sec. 7.09 #61 APA Publication Manual)
The basic format is:
Author Surname, Initials. (Date). Lecture title [Format]. Retrieved from URL

Jaffey, M. (n.d.). Global marketing [PDF document]. Retrieved from

In lecture notes to a MARK 110 class, M. Jaffey wrote...


...(Jaffey, n.d.).

PowerPoint presentation posted to D2L (Sec. 6.11 and sec. 6.27 APA Publication Manual)

Smith, M.M. (2011). Exercise, nutrition and health for athletes [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from

(Smith, 2011, Slide 9)
Source References In-text/Parenthetical citation

Articles or Book Chapters in a Course pack

Leibman, B. (2010). Sugar overload: 10 reasons to cut back. In P. McCrodan (Ed.), Health 110: Health in today’s world. Course package: Fall 2010-Winter/Spring 2011, (pp. 35-40). Victoria, BC: Camosun College Bookstore. (Reprinted from Nutrition Action Healthletter 37(1), 3-8.)

  • Treat the items in your course pack like articles or chapters in an edited book that are reprinted from another source.
  • Use the name of your instructor as the editor.
  • If the instructor's name is not given use the department as the editor
  • Use the bookstore as the publisher and the date the course pack was issued as the date of publication.
  • If there is no date of issue, use the current semester and year for the date of publication.

(Leibman, 2010, p. 35)

  • If available, use both the publication date of the original work and the course pack.
  • Some course packs are paginated continuously.
  • Some only include page numbers found on the original work.
  • Check with your instructors to see what they prefer.
Custom edition (Sec. 7.02 APA Publication Manual) For a custom edition book, the edition would be included as (Camosun College ed.) and placed immediately after the book title.

Lussier, R.N. & Achua, C.F. (2012). Leadership. (Camosun College 4th ed.). Toronto, ON: Nelson Education.

(Lussier & Achua, 2012, p.37)
Source References In-text/Parenthetical citation
Dictionary definition (print with no author) (Sec. 7.02 APA Publication Manual)

Protest. (1971). Compact edition of the Oxford English dictionary (Vol. 2, p.2335). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

("Protest," 1971)


Dictionary definition (electronic with author) (Sec. 7.02 #29 APA Publication Manual)


Liscombe, R.W. (2005). Rattenbury, Francis Mawson. In Grove Art online. Retrieved

(Liscombe, 2005)

Online, with no page numbers

Encyclopedia entry (electronic with no author) (Sec. 7.02 #30 APA Publication Manual)

Balkans. (2009). In Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from

("Balkans," 2009)
Source References In-text/Parenthetical citation
Audiovisual Media - Videos, Music Recordings, Maps retrieved online, Podcasts (Sec. 7.07 APA Publication Manual)

Achbar, M. & Simpson, B. (Producers), & Achbar, M. & Abbott, J. (Directors). (2005). The corporation part 1: The pathology of commerce [DVD]. Vancouver: Image Media.

(Achbar & Simpson, 2005, 23:05)

PowerPoint slides

Clarke, M. (2016). Crash course in APA [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from

(Clarke, 2016, Slide 5)
YouTube, TED, Vimeo (Sec. 7.11 APA Publication Manual, p. 209)

Lee, C. L. (2010, July 10). Nutrition and exercise with Celeste L. Lee [Video file]. Retrieved from

If a post, written or video, is part of a blog, it is one part of a larger, overarching work. This means that, like the title of an article in a journal or the title of a chapter in a book, the post's title is not italicized in the reference (as shown in our blog post example above). A stand-alone YouTube video is more like a video or movie that happens to be online so the title should be in italics.

Project Manager. (2012, April 25). Top 10 terms project managers use [Video file]. Retrieved from



If you have used an exact quote from a video or YouTube video, then add a timestamp to your in-text citation e.g.

("Project Manager," 2012, 2:05)

The APA Publication Manual, 6th edition provides some examples from American government sources (Sec. 7.03 in the manual).  The following examples are interpretations of APA for Canadian government material.

Begin with the government body issuing the document.  If the name of the country/province forms part of the government body name, the country or province at the beginning may be omitted.

For reports retrieved online identify the publisher as part of the retrieval statement unless they have already been identified as the author. E.g. Retrieved from Agency Name website: https://

OR (Office of Indigenous Health, 2012).
Source References In-text/Parenthetical citation
Canadian government (Sec. 7.03 #31 APA Publication Manual)

Public Safety Canada. (2018). Corrections and conditional release: Statistical overview 2017. Retrieved from

(Public Safety Canada, 2018)


Canadian government  (electronic with author) (Sec. 7.03 #33 APA Publication Manual)


Tapping, K. (2018. October 2). Astronomy and huge data. Retrieved from the National Research Council website:

For reports retrieved online with an individual author, identify the publisher as part of the retrieval statement

(Tapping, 2018, para. 3)

Online, with no page numbers so refer to the paragraph

Provincial government (electronic with no author) (Sec. 7.03 #31 APA Publication Manual)

British Columbia, Ministry of Health, Office of Indigenous Health. (2012). Health partnership accord. Retrieved from

Or you can use the shortened version (the most specific responsible agency) as long as there is no confusion with another agency cited wihin your report.

Office of Indigenous Health. (2012). Health partnership accord. Retrieved from

(British Columbia, Ministry of Health, 2012).
(Office of Indigenous Health, 2012).

The basic information you may need is:

  • artist or creator's name
  • title of the work if known
  • date it was created
  • repository, museum, or owner
  • city or country of origin
  • dimensions of the work
  • material or medium such as oil on canvas, marble, found objects
  • author of article or book if applicable
  • title and date of journal if applicable
  • database name if applicable
  • date of access if online
  • date of publication if originally from print material
  • URL if applicable

If you found the image in a book you will need the author, title, publisher information, date, and page, figure or plate number of the reproduction.

If you found the image online you will need the web site address (URL) and in some cases an image ID number.

Source References In-text/Parenthetical citation

Image of a painting (Sec. 5.21 APA Publication Manual)


Duveneck, F. (Artist). (1872). Whistling boy [Image of painting]. Cincinnati, Ohio; Cincinnati Art Museum. Retrieved from

(Duveneck, 1872)

Image of a photograph (Sec. 5.21 APA Publication Manual)


Keating, I. D. (Photographer). (2015). Houseboat - Victoria, BC [Digital Image]. Retrieved from

(Keating, 2015)

Source References In-text/Parenthetical citation

Secondary source (What if my author quotes another author?) (Sec. 6.17 APA Publication Manual)

Whenever you can, take material from the original source. Sometimes, however, only a secondary/indirect source is available.

Kizza, J. M. & Ssanyu, J. (2005). Workplace surveillance. Ed. J. Weckert. Electronic monitoring in the workplace: Controversies and solutions. Hershey, PA: Idea.

Researchers Botan and McCreadie point out that “workers are objects of information collection without participating in the process of exchanging the information” (as cited in Kizza and Ssanyu, 2005, p. 14).

When you're citing a webpage or an online document look for the same elements, in the same order, that you need for other sources:

  • Is there a personal or corporate/organizational author? If not, enter the title of the webpage or web document in the author position.
  • Date of publication or last updated date on page? (if there is no date, use n.d.)
  • The title of the document - if you're citing a webpage then look to the upper blue tab for the title; if you're citing a pdf document then use the title on the document itself
  • Date you accessed the site, if you think the information could change or disappear
  • Include the complete URL to get you directly to the source/document
Source References In-text/Parenthetical citation
Blog post (Sec. 7.11 APA Publication Manual)

Sarna, N. (2011, October 12). Pro-life students arrested at Carleton [Web log

       post]. Retrieved from

(Sarna, 2011, para. 1)

No page number in your online source? Then use a paragraph number (e.g. para. 3) or a heading (e.g. Discussion section, para. 1) to direct the reader to the location of the quoted material. (See Rule 6.05 in the APA Publication Manual) 

Web document created by an individual or an organization (Sec. 6.31-6.32 & 7.11 APA Publication Manual)

Stelzner, M. (2011, April). 2011 Social media marketing industry report: How marketers are using social media to grow their businesses. Retrieved from

If you need to break up a URL, do it after a slash.


(Stelzner, 2011, p. 5)

Page numbers must be included for direct quotations. Page numbers are encouraged, but not necessary, for paraphrased material (see Rule 6.04 in the APA Publication Manual)

Webpage within a website

(Sec. 6.31-6.32 & 7.11 APA Publication Manual)

Articles found on the web, like the examples here, are not italicized in the reference entry. They are treated like a newspaper or magazine article title. In the in-text citation you can use an abbreviated version of the title; titles are not italicized but enclosed in quotation marks.

Standalone reports found on the web would be italicized in the reference list (see

Author given (personal):

Ligaya, A. (2007, November 21). Is 'excited delirium' at the root of many Taser deaths? Retrieved from

Author given (corporate or organization)


American Psychological Association. (2013). 2012 annual report of the American Psychological Association. Retrieved from /info/reports/2012-report.pdf

Author not given:

Compare cell phone rate plans across Canada. (2014).  Retrieved December 10, 2014 from

Osteoporosis drugs raise femur fracture risk. (2011, February 23). Retrieved from









(Ligaya, 2007, para. 6)



(American Psychological Assocation [APA], 2013)


("Compare Cell,"  2014)

Include the date retrieved when you think the content could easily change.


("Osteoporosis Drugs," 2011, Fracture signs, para. 2)

Website - entire website (Sec. 6.31-6.32 & 7.11 APA Publication Manual) Not included in your References.

To cite an entire website, put the URL in the text of your paper only e.g.

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation website ( provides the latest...


Rickmercer. (2010, October 15). Ranting in an alley. Great day for it. Anger is my cardio! [twitter post]. Retrieved from

(Rickmercer, 2010)

You refer to the name exactly as it is in the twitter account.


Rick Mercer Report. (2008, September 27). Spread the net student challenge. [Facebook update]. Retrieved from!/note.php?note_id=28993606403

("Rick Mercer Report," 2008)
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