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IEEE citation style

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This guide has been based, with permission, on the guide created by Murdoch University Library, Western Australia.

What is IEEE?

The IEEE is the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and their citation system is what they require of authors writing for their publications.

IEEE referencing is a numeric system that consists of a two part process:

  1.  In-text citations, which appear within your paper, where the source is given a citation number in square brackets e.g. [3].If you are using an exact quote from a source then it would also include a page number e.g. [3, p. 12]
  2. The full details of the source are provided in a reference list at the end, ordered according to first appearance in the text.

‚ÄčWhere does the number get entered?

Put your citation number directly after the reference, not at the end of the sentence (unless this is where the reference is mentioned). Punctuation should be placed outside of the brackets. 

Once a source has been cited, the same number is used in all subsequent references.

When do I cite?

You're going to cite sources when you have:

  • taken an exact quote from the original source; provide a page number
  • paraphrased content from the original source
  • referred to a specific detail in an original source (e.g. an illustration, a table, a set of statistics).


What is a DOI?

DOI is a digital object identifier.  It is a unique set of characters that are attached to a digital object to allow it to be found when you use a DOI resolver (search tool) on the Internet.

Where are they used?

The most common place they are found is on journal articles but they can be attached to any digital object.  They were introduced in 2002 so they will often not be assigned to objects created prior to that date.

How do I find them?

For journal articles, go to the PDF version of the article and look in the top left corner of the first page of the article.  If available, DOI's will also be in the database record for an article.

2017 update to the DOI

All of the following are currently considered correct APA Style:

* this is the new format however, the other two are currently still acceptable. This change was made, in part, to ensure security with https